• Bluetooth electronic fence is coming
    Bluetooth electronic fence is coming
    In 2017, with the emergence of the bicycle sharing mode, the traditional travel field was instantly overturned. However, while it brings convenience to people's life, it also causes some disadvantages. When there is a lack of management of "stop and release as needed", it becomes a disorderly stop and release, which not only brings a lot of inconvenience to others, but also brings great troubles to city managers and bicycle-sharing operators. In order to further improve the parking order of shared bicycles, Bluetooth electronic fence technology has become a feasible solution. Bluetooth electronic fence technology is based on Bluetooth's positioning, broadcasting and transmission functions to realize vehicle entry management and vehicle on-site statistics. What is Bluetooth electronic fence Bluetooth electronic fence refers to the platform planning and setting up a certain area, allowing and standardizing the parking of shared bicycles in this area, and placing Bluetooth beacon equipment in this area, which can detect the shared bicycles installed with Bluetooth within a radius of 50 meters. If the vehicle is parked beyond the specified area or traveling beyond the specified area, the system will generate a series of alarm notices, so that the manager can check and know the dynamics of the relevant vehicle in time and take corresponding measures to deal with it. The public electronic fence realizes data interaction through Bluetooth, and its signal and data coverage accuracy can reach Yami level, management is accurate to vehicles, and can be compatible with the standard parking of different brands sharing bicycles. The sharing bicycle Bluetooth electronic fence scheme is based on the integration of bicycle perception, electronic fence induction, long endurance and other technologies, through Bluetooth wireless broadcast, positioning and transmission services, under the premise of ensuring the long endurance of nodes, to achieve stable and reliable electronic fence services such as bicycle perception, fence induction, etc., to achieve the interconnection of sharing bicycle, bicycle parking point, operation service platform, effectively solve the urban management difficulties caused by the disordered development of Internet shared bicycles. Realization means of electronic fence technology There are three main technical implementation methods of electronic fence: 1. Electronic fence based on satellite positioning technology (GPS); 2. Use the Bluetooth read/write device of the car lock to read the electronic fence of the Bluetooth label fixed at the parking point; 3. The Bluetooth of the user's mobile phone reads the Bluetooth electronic tag of the parking point and the electronic fence of the vehicle-mounted Bluetooth tag; The first and second technologies rely on satellite positioning technology and Bluetooth device on the car lock respectively, which is relatively hidden visually. The third type of installation and deployment is extremely convenie...
  • Wireless BMS to Further Boost NEV Upgrade
    Wireless BMS to Further Boost NEV Upgrade
    In the first half of 2022, the shipment of the global NEV market took off, and the sales of NEVs in mainland China in the first half of the year were particularly prominent, creating an astonishing result of a year-on-year increase of more than 100%. When new energy vehicles become a household topic, people's requirements for battery systems become increasingly high. They expect manufacturers not only to improve battery life, but also to ensure safety and stability. As a result, a major innovative technology in the industry is about to emerge, that is, wBMS, or wireless battery management system. The cost of BMS accounts for about 20% of the power battery of NEVs. The traditional BMS connects the battery packs with cables, and then bridges them with daisy chain interfaces. The use of cables and mechanical interfaces is space consuming, which actually squeezes the room for battery energy density improvement. The wireless BMS replaces the traditional ring circuit by deploying wireless modules on the BMS host and the battery pack node, realizing the star + ad hoc network mode for necessary communication of battery management. The wireless method not only increases the energy density improvement space, but also greatly reduces the labor in the battery assembly stage. And with wireless solutions manufacturers does not need to consider investment big money on isolation between the high and low voltage circuits in the battery. In the traditional mode, in event of an accident or aging caused by long distance riding, some cable might get broken or contact of some interface would become poor. It is easy to cause the power battery system to disfunction. In that case, the power battery needs to be replaced as a whole. The potential economic loss to the car owner is considerable. The wireless method does not have the problem of wire and interface failure, and because of its wireless characteristics, it naturally has the advantage of modularization. Even if there is a problem with a certain part of the battery pack, you can just take out the faulty battery pack for replacement without disposing the entire power battery. Due to the above-mentioned advantages, leading car makers began to consider wireless BMS technology from 2019. So far available or upcoming models with wireless BMS technology include: BMW i3 (2022), GM's Hummer EV (2024). Texas Instruments, which is deeply involved in the field of automotive electronics, took the lead in launching the CC2662R-Q1, the world's first wBMS SoC solution that complies with ISO 26262 ASIL D standard. The chip deploys the TI's proprietary Simplelink wBMS protocol over the 2.4GHz band. The solution can manage and support up to 100 nodes, and specified to couple with BQ79616-Q1 battery monitor, it can be used for different configurations, such as 16, 32, and 64-cell battery systems. The wireless approach in which the battery module transmits battery data directly to the BMS MCU overcomes the challenges inherent for wire...
  • Making of Car PEPS
    Making of Car PEPS
    Automobile makers has been caught in crunch of electronic components shortage,albeit the trend of intelligent cars is irresistible. As the most instant and impressive evidence of smartness to users, the PEPS (Passive Entry and Passive Start)system is no more a high profile feature only for high end cars. It has been introduced to mid-tier or even economical models by many car makers, emerging brands in particular. In China market where EV sales witness more than 100 percent growth in the first half of 2022, major electric car makers such as BYD, GAC Aion, Geely, Nio, Xpeng and Li Auto have basically equipped all models with PEPS. While that ECU quietly stuns us motorists, have we ever thought of probing the trail of its making and the prospect of its future? Let’s hit the road. PEPS provides motorists with experience of securely entering the car without manually unlocking activity. The engine and HVAC system of the car can be remotely started before the driver or passengers enter the car. While all passengers leave the car, the PEPS will automatically lock the car. In this way, car users enjoy the convenience of passive entry with security reassured. That must be why we name it with the word “passive”. Yesterday: RKE and PKE Currently, mainstream PEPS solutions integrate wireless technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), NFC, RFID (High Frequency and Low Frequency) etc. Well, how do they function? It would be hard to digest if we tell story as of today. So, why don’t we flash back to yesterday? In the end of 1990s, some high-end car models phased in a remote keyless entry (RKE) system an evolution over the earlier IMMO (immobilizer) solution based on low frequency RFID (125KHz). As a predecessor of the PEPS, the RKE has the key fob to transmit UHF(ultra- high frequency)signals to a RF receiver connected with the BCM (body control module) of the car to verify user identity. Once the ID is verified, the system will execute an open/close-door action driven by the BCM. Such a one-way verification mechanism as shown in Figure 1 can be interpret as an advance-set cipher in a spy movie. When a visiting secret agent comes to a meeting venue, he or she has to speak or show such a cipher. If the cipher is correct, he or she will be allowed in. The drawback of this mechanism is that once the enemy infiltrated and got the cipher, the venue will be instantly broken. Figure 1. Working Mechanism of RKE The RKE solution adopts frequency bands of 315 MHz (in USA, China and Japan etc.), 433.92 MHz (in Europe, China) and 868MHz (in Europe). In term of signal modulation, most countries adopt the ASK (amplitude shift keying) mode, whereas Japan adopts the FSK (frequency shift keying) mode. IC vendors such as Silicon Labs, Maxim, Microchip and NXP etc. have offerings in this field. By early 21st century, people upgraded the one-way verification mechanism of the RKE to a two-way mechanism called the PKE (passive keyless entry) system, where the verification is n...
  • Wi-SUN Products Launch Anouncement!  ——RFstar Has Joined Hands with TI to Develop Wide-Area Mesh!
    Wi-SUN Products Launch Anouncement! ——RFstar Has Joined Hands with TI to Develop Wide-Area Mesh!
    Recently, RF-star, a veteran wireless IoT company in China, announced that it has joined hands with Texas Instruments to launch several Wi-SUN products, focusing on the development of wide-area mesh, hoping to provide customers with integrated solution development environment of end-edge-cloud in the field of industrial IoT and public facilities. The products disclosed by the company include a variety of Wi-SUN communication modules based on the TI CC1352 and CC1312 series, which support Sub1G multi-band and 2.4GHz communication, and support self-organizing networks by mesh and multi-hop. The distance of a single hop can reach several kilometers. Development history of Wi-SUN Even for most people in the IoT circle, Wi-SUN is a new technology. Actually it has been created for more than a dozen years. However it floated only in recent years after more major chip vendors and device manufacturers joined the technology alliance and started to promote the technology. As early as 2008, there was no unified wireless communication standard for the Wide Area network in the industry, while there were various wireless communication protocols in the industry at that time. What these protocols have in common is that they adopted the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But they still cannot achieve interconnection in the application layer. In order to solve this complex problem, Wi-SUN FAN (Wireless Utility Field Area Network), a large-scale wireless mesh network based on IP technology came into being. The standard is committed to becoming the global wireless mesh network standard with interoperability. With the implementation of the standard, Wi-SUN alliance was established in 2012. Currently, the alliance has more than 250 members worldwide, including Cisco, ARM, Texas Instruments and Itron, etc. Over the past two years, the Wi-SUN standard has matured, and hundreds of millions of Wi-SUN enabled devices have been deployed worldwide. It is widely used in public utilities and smart city facilities due to its feature of enabling smart meters, smart street lights and other devices to be connected to a public network. Wi-SUN technology is an open specification based on IEEE 802.15.4g, IEEE 802 and IETF IPv6 standard protocols. Wi-SUN FAN is a mesh network protocol that support self organizing and self-healing functions. Each device in the network can communicate with its neighbors, and signals can be transmit to each node in the mesh, making very long range hops in between. Wi-SUN features long distance transmission, security, high scalability, interoperability, easy deployment, mesh network, as well as low power consumption (the battery life of Wi-SUN modules has a chance to It can be used for ten years). It is widely used in smart meters and family intelligent energy management (HEMS) controllers for communication, and is also conducive to building a wide-area large-scale internet of things. The Wi-SUN standard mainly consists of two sub-specifications, namely FAN and HAN. ...
  • Bluetooth Smart Level Gauge
    Bluetooth Smart Level Gauge
    The liquid level gauge is a special instrument for liquid level monitoring that integrates the functions of liquid level detection, data acquisition and transmission. It is mainly used to monitor the real-time data of the liquid level in the container and the natural environment. The Bluetooth module is implanted to make it wireless. Thus, after the liquid level gauge completes the sensing, the signal transmission and information interaction can be completed wirelessly, making its deployment safer, more convenient and more reliable in use. Challenge Liquid level gauges are usually used in harsh industrial environment which is subject to high temperature, strong corrosion, strong adhesion, dust and soot, making it great danger to manually survey with traditional liquid level gauges. Manually measured and recorded data is also subject to inaccuracy. However, factories keep elevating bars for the quality, immediacy, reliability and storability of sensing data. Traditional liquid level gauges can no longer meet such requirements raised in latest industrial production scenarios. At the same time, complex terrains of some industrial sites make it extremely difficult for equipment wiring. The deployment and construction cost of traditional wiring methods between transmission nodes is high, and the cost for maintaining the system will also be high. Solution By building a Bluetooth module into the liquid level gauge, the liquid level gauge can transmit data such as its power level, sensing signal strength, liquid level data information, and alarm information to the terminal device in real-time through the wireless network. The terminal equipment stores and analyzes the data, makes inquiries or  raise alarms, thereby realizing convenient deployment, collection, and maintenance while ensuring the safety of personnel. Keep tracking consumption status in real-time The wireless liquid level gauge is made by connecting the meter with a built-in Bluetooth module functioning as a data-transparent transmission unit. The receiving end of the wireless liquid level gauge is responsible for the data display and gauge setting. It also distill and output analog and switch signals to the terminal equipment. It detects liquid level in closed or open containers, processes relevant data, and automatically raise alarm and augment data whenever the level reaches a preconfigured threshold or the battery’s voltage is too low. It thus enable us to reduce manual intervention in survey and ensures the accuracy of the measurement as well. Through the terminal equipment, we can better monitor and manage the liquid level of the tank, tracking the consumption level in real-time, and ensuring the safety of personnel. Low deployment and maintenance costs The wireless level gauge greatly reduces the cost of trenching and wiring and later line maintenance. It does not need to lay cables, nor damage existing structures of the factory, saving labor and engineering costs. Meanwhile, wir...
  • Smart Home Market Insight: Key Drivers, Challenges, Key Trends
    Smart Home Market Insight: Key Drivers, Challenges, Key Trends
    From the market insight of Transparency Market Research, The global smart home market is expected to reach the value of US$ 767.3 Bn by the end of 2031 owing to numerous factors. A smart home is a home equipped with lighting, heating, and electronic devices that can be controlled remotely by a phone or computer. The increasing inclination of consumers to build smart homes is expected to boost the smart home market. Key drivers for the smart home market The key factors fueling the growth of this market include the increasing importance of home monitoring in remote locations and growing concern with regard to safety, security and convenience among the general population, the increasing number of internet users and the growing adoption of smart devices along with the growing need for energy-saving and low carbon emission-oriented solutions have been crucial for increased demand of smart home systems. The IoT connects products, software algorithms, services, and end-users, enabling a smooth flow of data and making real-time decisions. It has proved its efficiency and has enhanced the quality and consistency of automation systems. Owing to the benefits achieved by connecting household products to the internet, the IoT has gained popularity among residential consumers. Its development will further boost the smart home market. Challenge: Issues related to security and privacy breaches A smart home helps in gathering information regarding energy usage and bills, purchases, movements, and music preferences, among others, to enable its systems to be custom-built to best support the inhabitants’ lifestyle. Devices in a smart home may be vulnerable to common hacking tools. Since the data related to personal information, physical safety, medical care, and homes are stored virtually on the cloud, the possibilities of misuse of these data by hackers are high. A hacked monitor could provide access to other personal data and information, which, in turn, could be used to victimize a user or a homeowner. The smart home industry is confronted with the challenge of assuring security and confidentiality of personal information to consumers. In the case of the remote control of security services, it is imperative to maintain the confidentiality of the information stored; the control of a network’s security systems cannot be compromised. This is expected to restrain market growth to an extent. In addition to this, data generated by unprotected wearables and smart appliances provide cyber attackers with an ample amount of targeted personal information that can potentially be exploited for fraudulent transactions and identify theft. Smart device hijacking can potentially put the safety of an entire household in jeopardy. An attacker may hijack and effectively assumes control of a device. These attacks are quite difficult to detect because the attacker does not change the basic functionality of the device. Key Trends for Smart Home Market Integration with smart wearable de...
  • BLE Enables HVAC Digital Intelligence
    BLE Enables HVAC Digital Intelligence
    HVAC (heating ventilation and air conditioning) systems consumes nearly 20% of electricity supplied in the world. For companies and public facility organizations, optimizing energy efficiency of HVAC systems is not only a social responsibility, but also a key driver for their endeavor on cost optimization and operational excellence. HVAC vendors have been relentlessly working hard to optimize the system’s energy efficiency. Conventionally they put almost all effort on improving cold or heat sources. Recent development of IoT and digital technologies, however, created a new way for the HVAC industry to build smart energy management solutions. Such technologies are more oriented to equip the HVAC system with capability of timely and precise perception of fluctuating cooling or heating demand of its serviced space. The system can hence intelligently adjust the cooling or heating output based on such perception. Adopting Bluetooth low energy technologies significantly facilitates HVAC vendors in implementing such new smart solutions. Challenges Although traditional HVAC systems boast of some degree of automation, they can hardly perceived conditions such as temperature and humidity of the target space. Even if they are sometimes connected with a few sensors, connections were completed with cables, which make another hassle. From the perspective of the overall system, such sensors are still information silos though. In aspect of actuators, traditional systems also adopt conventional PC cabling, which is costly in system integration engineering and subject to weathering and rodent after installation. Traditional HAVC systems adopts cable connected panels for man-machine interaction. It not only makes remote monitoring and controlling a costly effort but also hindered the introduction of artificial intelligence into the arena. Solution By embedding Bluetooth low energy modules into sensors, actuators, and control panels, constituents of the HVAC system can agilely weave into an organic web in its serviced space. The modules can forward sensor data such as humidity and temperature northward to the upper device. After data processing, the upper device will work out operating commands. Such command data are also sent via the module to actuators. The status of the HVAC system will be shown to local or remote users via wireless terminals. In this way, it is convenient for users anywhere to monitor and control the HVAC system. With ultra-long autonomy, Bluetooth-enabled sensors can be flexibly deployed in the HVAC system’s serviced space, ushering in the opportunity of implementing AI applications which require feeding of real-time big data. With a large amount of sensing data uploaded to the host computer and hence to the cloud server, the AI solution provider can is able to train an optimal energy consumption algorithm. By using such ongoing optimizing algorithm, users can enjoy high quality cooling or heating services with the lowest energy consumption. Re...
  • RFstar's Bluetooth Module Empowers EV Charging Piles Industry
    RFstar's Bluetooth Module Empowers EV Charging Piles Industry
    Sales of electric vehicles have been witnessing dramatic growth in recent years as their prices keep dropping while range keep rising. The trend further boosted the demand for EV charging piles. Unfortunately, in such a mega trend, some drawbacks of traditional charging piles were brought to attention. Just to name a few: 1) many installed charging piles are from well being utilized; 2)some of them are vulnerable to environmental interference; 3) and some impose risk to undermine safety use. Some vendors consider to have Bluetooth embedded to shake away the hassles mentioned above.  RFstar’s RSBRS02ABR BLE module is such a product for this application with solid track record in this arena. This model enabled quite many OEMs in China and abroad to streamline design and assembly operations. Challenges for Charging Pile System Traditional charging piles are facing a few challenges in technology. Challenge 1: The layout and deployment of charging piles failed to cover the need of EVs geographically, causing a phenomenon that EVs in high traffic area cannot access charging piles and in areas with very low traffic many charging piles remain idle. Challenge 2: Public EV charging spaces prone to be occupied by fossil fuel cars. And they also suffer high ratio of defect and even cease to work. Challenge 3: Some traditional speed charging piles are vulnerable to hazard conditions. The internal communication of their battery system are not immune to problems, that could cause overcharging and overheating issues, making  the electric vehicle under charging to inflame. Solution Facing the above challenges, mainstream manufacturers started to apply Bluetooth technology in charging pile solutions. For such specific application, RFstar’s RSBRS02ABR Bluetooth module has unique advantages as follows: Utilization rate dramatically improved By introducing RFstar’s BLE module RSBRS02ABR into charging pile solution , OEMs can significantly reduce the wiring work while achieving higher flexibility, incurring less installation cost, and effectively meet the demand for flexible distribution of charging stations.Furthermore, adding the Bluetooth module shake off the hassle of cable networking in charging pile installation. It can transmit data from the charging pile to your mobile through Bluetooth. After the mobile phone is connected to the Internet, the data can be uploaded to the cloud. In this way, it achieves excellent convenience to locate the charging pile, and complete transaction. Higher security With Bluetooth modules embedded, the charging pile can use wireless communication to track and transmit such data as charging time, voltage and current, etc. to the terminal devices. With the support of such data, we can automatically manage the charging status and monitor the charging process in real-time. Moreover, it would send alert or alarm once any faults were detected,thus to avoid damage to the equipment, and prevent potential hazards, thereby reducing ...
  • RFstar BG22A1 Bluetooth Module Empowers BMS Industry
    RFstar BG22A1 Bluetooth Module Empowers BMS Industry
    The rapid development of new energy vehicles arena bolsters exponential growth of the power battery industry, which further boosts the development of BMS technology. Power battery makers such as Sunwoda, BYD, Evebattery, and Neusoft Reach are increasingly prone to adding Bluetooth modules inside the BMS to achieve wireless BMS application. Replacing the traditional cabled packaging method,a BLE solution can dramatically reduce the size of the BMS system, and making it more secure, more reliable, and more affordable. Challenges for BMS systems The traditional BMS technology are facing quite a few challenges. Challenge 1: the traditional BMS adopts a space consuming wired architecture, it is not only costly in maintenance, but also difficult in meeting the demand for continuous real-time battery monitoring. Challenge 2: the traditional transmission method of the BMS is relatively high power consuming and weak in scalability. Challenge 3:the cost of the traditional BMS system is very high. The wire harness (often copper wire) and plug-in connectors will add extra weight and cost to the solution. And as it also requires manual assembly, it results in a high labor cost. Solutions Facing the above challenges, mainstream manufacturers start to apply Bluetooth modules to BMS systems and develop wireless BMS technology. Bluetooth technology makes the BMS package much more compacted, less power consuming. And since it significantly reduces application of wires and saves the labor of wire assembly, it dramatically reduces the cost of the whole solution. By ensuring successfulinnovation of BMS makers with its excellent performance, RFstar’s RF-BM-BG22A1 Bluetooth module has gained high recognition in the automotive field. Followings are the unique advantages of the product: More intelligent and more flexible The BMS system requires no cable connection after adding the RFstar’s RF-BM-BG22A1 Bluetooth module. With embedded BLE modules, it can use wireless communication to track the status and performance of every single battery, transmit such data as voltage, current, etc. of the battery pack to the PDA in real-time. With support of such data and some precautious signals, the charging and discharging processes of the battery can be well managed. Moreover, it also reduces the complexity of the whole system, saving spaces and improving reliability of the BMS. More affordable With Bluetooth modules embedded, the BMS solution shakes away from the hassle of  cables and tedious harnesses labor, saving significant assembly cost, and making it more align to the the current trend of lightweight design in the automotive industry. Based on Silicon Labs chip, RFstar’s RF-BM-BG22A1 is a low-energy Bluetooth module that supports Bluetooth 5.2. It has excellent low power consumption performance and strong anti-interference ability. The product has passed many authoritative certifications, such as Reach certification, GTS certification, TCB certification, etc.
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